DBT- Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Emphasizes emotions and forming close relationships when people have thoughts of hurting themselves (cutting, suicide, homicide).
It is designed to help regulate emotional responses, improve relationships and create personal safety (middle way – a balance between acceptance and change). Validation and new behaviours.
1) mindfulness – develops awareness – focus on emotions without judgement
2) communication with others – what are the priorities
3) Distress tolerance – sit with emotions like sadness and anger
4) Acceptance – balance mood -wise mind
5) middle way – acceptance and change
This approach works towards helping people increase their emotional and cognitive regulation by learning about the triggers that lead to reactive states and helping to assess which coping skills to apply in the sequence of events, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to help avoid undesired reactions. DBT assumes that people are doing their best but lack the skills needed to succeed, or are influenced by positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement that interferes with their ability to function appropriately.
A modified form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), DBT was developed in the late 1980s by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronically suicidal individuals. Research on its effectiveness in treating other conditions has been fruitful; DBT is now used in a variety of psychological treatments including treatment for depression, substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),traumatic brain injuries (TBI), binge-eating disorder, and mood disorders. Research indicates that DBT might have some effect on patients who present varied symptoms and behaviors associated with spectrum mood disorders, including self-injury. Recent work also suggests its effectiveness with sexual abuse survivors and chemical dependency.
DBT combines standard cognitive behavioral techniques for emotion regulation and reality-testing with concepts of distress tolerance, acceptance, and mindful awareness largely derived from Buddhist meditative practice. DBT is based upon the biosocial theory and is the first therapy that has been experimentally demonstrated to be generally effective in treating BPD. The first randomized clinical trial of DBT showed reduced rates of suicidal gestures, psychiatric hospitalizations, and treatment drop-outs when compared to treatment as usual. A meta-analysis found that DBT reached moderate effects in individuals with borderline personality disorder.